Maned Wolf

Photo Credit: Sean Crane Photography

Photo Credit: Sean Crane Photography

The Maned Wolf is very rare in the wild, found throughout central South America, where it frequents tall grasslands such as the Brazilian Savanna. The Maned Wolf is actually not a wolf at all, but the sole member of the genus Chrysocyon. Because it is so unlike other canines, many scientists believe that the Maned Wolf is the last surviving large South American canid after a late Pleistocene extinction.

This canine, the largest in South America, stands up to 2.5 feet at the shoulders. The long, stilt-like legs are believed to be an adaptation which helps them see over the tall grasses of their preferred habitat.

The “mane” in Maned Wolf comes from a strip of long, dark fur that runs from the back of the wolf’s head to end between the shoulders. This mane is raised if the animal is threatened or aggressive, much as the domestic dog will raise its hackles.

The Maned Wolf is omnivorous, eating small mammals and invertebrates, as well as plant matter. This animal frequently dines on the lobeira fruit, lobiera meaning “wolf’s plant” in Portuguese. This fruit can compose a significant portion of the wolf’s diet, and is believed to help protect them from the giant kidney worm.

The Maned Wolf is primarily nocturnal, hunting and foraging during the night, with peaks of activity in the dawn and dusk. Unlike many other canines, the Maned Wolf is primarily solitary. A single, monogamous mated pair will share a territory of 15 to 30 square miles, but only associate with one another during the breeding season.

The Maned Wolf has a unique vocalization called a “roar-bark,” which does indeed sound like something between a roar and a bark. This deep, guttural call helps the Maned Wolf communicate over long distances, and can be heard in this video.

Lowland Streaked Tenrec

tenrec

Photo Credit: bugbog.com

The Lowland Streaked Tenrec lives only in eastern Madagascar, where it is found in the forest near bodies of water. This extraordinary little mammal is an insectivore, which means that it only eats insects, and this tenrec dines primarily on earthworms. Its body is covered with a mixture of fur and quills, some of which are barbed and detachable. When threatened, the tenrec will raise the quills around its neck and lunge toward a predator, causing the quills to lodge into flesh and detach. This small creature only weighs 7.5 ounces at most, and is approximately 6 inches long at adulthood, including the tail.

The Lowland Streaked Tenrec lives in underground burrows in family groups, which is a unique social behavior among tenrecs. Burrows may hold up to 20 individuals, and are disguised with detritus that the tenrecs use to cover burrow entrances and exits. A “toilet” site is located outside of the burrow. Family members forage together both during the day and night, searching the leaf litter for insects with their sensitive, pointed snouts.

The Streaked Tenrec has developed a novel method of communication which no other mammal uses; stridulation. Stridulation is the rubbing together of certain body parts to produce sound, and the Streaked Tenrec achieves this end with its quills. The tenrec vibrates specialized, permanent quills on its back to produce an insect-like chirping noise that is used to communicate with family members, primarily while foraging. These noises are undetectable to the human ear, but, using a device that converts bat ultrasounds into audible frequencies, BBC managed to capture and film the stridulation of the Streaked Tenrec. This video clip is the first and only recording of tenrecs communicating with their quills.

Tapir

Tapir

Photo Credit: San Diego Zoo Library

The Tapir may resemble an elephant or an anteater with that nose (called a proboscis), but they are actually cousins of horses and rhinoceroses. There are four different species of Tapir living today, and each of them uses their long nose, which includes their upper lip, to help them forage for food and strip branches of tasty leaves. That big proboscis is also specialized to help tapirs detect pheromones or scent markings from other tapirs that may be in the area.

Pictured above is the Malayan Tapir, which lives scattered throughout Malaya and Sumatra. The Malayan Tapir is the largest, at up to 800 pounds, and the only species with the distinctive white band. The Baird’s Tapir is distributed scarcely throughout Central America, is brown, and can be identified by the cream colored markings on their cheeks, throat and chest. The Lowland Tapir can be found in most South American rain forests, and are the most common of the four species. The Lowland Tapir is brown, and has a unique crest of fur along the back of the neck, somewhat resembling raised hackles. The Mountain Tapir is small, and is found at high elevations in the Andes. The Mountain Tapir is often called the Woolly Tapir, and sports a thick, shaggy coat of reddish-brown. All baby Tapirs are a rusty brown color, with cream colored stripes and spots for camouflage.

All Tapirs prefer moist, tropical habitats that have access to water, where they will often swim and wallow in mud. Tapirs have been observed to dive to forage for food and walk along the bottom of a body of water like a hippopotamus, and will even sleep in shallow water during the night.

Tapirs range from 400 to 800 pounds, and stand between 2 to 3 feet tall. Tapirs have four toes on their front feet and three toes on their back feet, and each toe ends in a long hoof. All species of tapir are strictly herbivorous and can live to be thirty years of age. Tapirs communicate vocally in high-pitched whistles and chirps.

Tapirs often use the same paths every day, eventually forming tunnel-like passages that will lead to water and food. These tunnels see the most traffic during dawn and dusk, which is when tapirs are most active.

Tapirs are infamous at zoos for one very special talent; they are urinary marksmen! Tapirs spray their urine behind them, and their very accurate range can extend up to fifteen feet! For an idea of just how well and how far tapirs can spray, take a look at this video.